Etiology and Pathogenesis:
Bloat is an overdistention of the rumenoreticulum with the gases of fermentation, either in the form of a persistent foam mixed with the ruminal contents—called primary or frothy bloat, or in the form of free gas separated from the ingesta—called secondary or free-gas bloat. It is predominantly a disorder of cattle . . . → Read More: Ruminal Tympany in Dairy Cattle
Cannulation of Rumen Dairy Cow
Usually, the clinical diagnosis of frothy bloat is obvious. The causes of secondary bloat must be ascertained by clinical examination to determine the cause of the failure of eructation.
In life-threatening cases, an emergency rumenotomy may be necessary; it is accompanied by an explosive release of ruminal . . . → Read More: Control and Prevention of Frothy Bloat in Dairy Cattle
Photo courtesy of Oklahoma State University, www.ansi.okstate.edu
This breed designation originated in 1961 when the Norwegian Red-and-White, Red Trondheim and the Red Polled Østland. Later in 1963 the Døle was also absorbed into the designation and in 1968 South and West Norwegians were added.
Others breeds which have been said to contribute . . . → Read More: Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Breeds
Photo courtesy of The British Kerry Cattle Society, www.kerrycattle.org.uk
Kerry Cattle are an Irish dairy breed believed to be one of the oldest breeds in Europe (from comparing skull formation) and most probably the descendants of the Celtic Shorthorn, brought to Ireland as long ago as 2000 B.C. They are still . . . → Read More: Kerry Dairy Cattle Breed
Photo courtesy of the American Lineback Dairy Cattle Association, americanlinebacks.tripod.com
The Lineback is a rare breed originating from America, in the 18th and 19th Century the Lineback was a dual-purpose animal, fulfilling the owners needs for both milk and meat. During these times there was an increase in importation of European . . . → Read More: Lineback Dairy Cattle Breed
The Meuse Rhine Issel originates from the Netherlands and Germany. In the Netherlands, it was developed in the region of the three rivers from which it gets its name. In Germany it comes from the regions of Westfalia, Rhineland and Schleswig Holstein, and is known there as the Rotbunt.
The last part . . . → Read More: Meuse Rhine Issel Dairy Cattle Breed